Original Research

Delivering below the line in project management – A conceptual exploration

Udechukwu Ojiako, Maxwell Chipulu, Stuart Maguire
Acta Commercii | Vol 13, No 1 | a185 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.4102/ac.v13i1.185 | © 2013 Udechukwu Ojiako, Maxwell Chipulu, Stuart Maguire | This work is licensed under CC Attribution 4.0
Submitted: 04 March 2013 | Published: 05 June 2013

About the author(s)

Udechukwu Ojiako, Faculty of Management, University of Johannesburg, South Africa
Maxwell Chipulu, School of Management, University of Southampton, United Kingdom
Stuart Maguire, The Management School, University of Sheffield, United Kingdom


Purpose: In this conceptual paper, the argument is put forward that due to the complexity that characterises most project environments, it is now time to examine alternative notions of project outcomes.

Design/Methodology/Approach: The study is conceptual in nature and draws upon literature on complexity theory, expectations theories and stakeholder theory.

Findings: The paper finds that there is a need to articulate a different assessment of project outcomes than has been traditionally undertaken. Such assessments may emphasise the perceptions of project clients formed through their experience of projects throughout the project lifecycle.

Implications: This paper raises questions on whether the outcomes of projects are best ‘measured’ or ‘assessed’.


No related keywords in the metadata.


Total abstract views: 6339
Total article views: 11443

Crossref Citations

No related citations found.