Original Research

Employee motivation in Ghana: A factor structure and measurement tool

B. B. Puplampu
Acta Commercii | Vol 7, No 1 | a30 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.4102/ac.v7i1.30 | © 2007 B. B. Puplampu | This work is licensed under CC Attribution 4.0
Submitted: 05 December 2007 | Published: 05 December 2007

About the author(s)

B. B. Puplampu, University of Ghana Business School, Legon, Ghana

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Purpose: This paper reports research on the factor structure of employee motivation as well as provides a tool for measuring the level of employee motivation in Ghanaian organisations.

Methodology: The study was designed as exploratory, comparative and cross-sectional. 260 respondents drawn from across the gender, status and job grade hierarchy of 19 organisations participated. The organisations were matched in terms of tenure (over 5years), number of employees (50 or more) and geographic location (headquartered in Accra). A 41-item questionnaire on the Level of Motivation (LoM); Characteristics of Employee Motivation (CEM); aspects of Organisational Citizenship Behaviour (OCB); Managerial Assumptions about employee behaviour (MA); Contextual Institutional Analysis (IAN) and Organisational Leadership Issues (Le) was developed and used. The instrument combined fixed response format on a 3-point scale with open-ended responses.

Findings: Exploratory Factor Analyses (Varimax Rotation, converging in 26 iterations) yielded 6 factors, which account for 60% of the variance. Thematic analyses of both interview and open-ended questionnaire data support the emergent factor structure, providing some tentative indication that employee motivation in the Ghanaian (or indeed African) context should be looked at more in an integrated manner rather than in terms of the limiting confines of any one theory of motivation. The 3 items hypothesised to constitute the measure of level of employee motivation loaded neatly onto Factor 6. One-way ANOVA demonstrated no differences in the level of motivation across the organisational samples; this was confirmed by the interview data.

Implications/Originality/Value: The implications and value of this research are: that motivation research in Africa does need to focus more on developing an integrated model of employee motivation; also, a simple 3-item but novel tool for measuring the level of employee motivation as well as its underlying dynamics, is tentatively put forward. This, in the Ghanaian context, is a much needed psychometric.


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