Original Research

Marketing mix strategy determinants in pork-based agri-businesses: Experiences from Zimbabwe

Saul Ngarava, Abbyssinia Mushunje
Acta Commercii | Vol 19, No 2 | a600 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.4102/ac.v19i2.600 | © 2019 Saul Ngarava, Abbyssinia Mushunje | This work is licensed under CC Attribution 4.0
Submitted: 09 February 2018 | Published: 30 April 2019

About the author(s)

Saul Ngarava, Department of Agri-business, Agricultural Economics and Extension, University of Fort Hare, Alice, South Africa
Abbyssinia Mushunje, Department of Agri-business, Agricultural Economics and Extension, University of Fort Hare, Alice, South Africa


Orientation: Agri-businesses, especially at the farmer level, are devoid of sound marketing strategy.

Research purpose: This study aimed to highlight the marketing mix elements most considered by pork-based agri-businesses.

Motivation for the study: Zimbabwe underwent institutional transformation policies of land reform and indigenisation policies. New industry players came to the fore. However, they were devoid of sound business background.

Research design, approach and method: The study utilised a questionnaire in a cross-sectional survey of 166 pig farmers, 6 pork processors and 24 pork butchers in Mashonaland Central province. Descriptive statistics, logistic regression and multiple linear regression were used to analyse the data.

Main findings: Product, promotion, price and partnership were considered. Category of agri-business, distance the furthest buyer travelled, the merchandise handled and frequency of abattoir or processor buyers determined marketing mix strategy. Perceptive performance of the agri-businesses in terms of marketing mix strategy was determined by category of agri-business, merchandise consideration, frequency of abattoir or processor buyer, seasonality of sales and time of consideration when selling; agri-business location and the experience of the agri-business.

Practical/managerial implications: The study concluded with the myopic use of marketing mix based strategies in the Zimbabwean agri-businesses, targeting product-based characteristics, with varying determinants. There is opportunity to strategically position where place, promotion and pricing advantages exist.

Contribution/value-add: The study added to insights for marketing managers, especially in a structural transformation situation, what marketing strategies are mostly utilised. This tends to avail shortfalls and opportunities that can be taken advantage of, to strategically position pork agri-businesses in Zimbabwe.


agri-business; marketing mix; strategy; pork industry; Zimbabwe; 4Ps


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